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This document is provided for information purposes only and the contents hereof are subject to change without notice. This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without our prior written permission. For more information, please contact: U. Includes index. ISBN X pbk. Virtual computer systems. Victor, Jeff. V5O73 All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise.

For information regarding permissions, write to: Pearson Education, Inc. Why Virtualize? Fooling a whole stack of software to run correctly on a software simulation of the platform it was designed to run on has been a recurring interest in my career. Because that systems perspective informs everything we do, we have a wealth of solutions to match the diverse needs of modern enterprise architectures. Many of these tools are interoperable, enabling solutions that are otherwise impossible or impractical.

Here are some examples from the Sun portfolio. ZFS is a key storage virtualization technology at the core of the future of the Solaris operating system as well as the appliance products we build from Solaris technology today. For client virtualization, look no further than VirtualBox—for the laptop and desktop, both as a developer utility, and as a virtual appliance developer tool for the cloud.

As well as infrastructure virtualization platforms, we have created infrastructure management software—Ops Center— intended to reduce the complexity that comes with using the new capabilities in large-scale deployments. In the past decade, the runaway success of hypervisor-based virtualization on x64 platforms has largely been driven by the operational savings achieved by consolidating Microsoft Windows guests.

But now this layer of the system architecture is just part of the way infrastructure is done, a new raft of capabilities can be built on top of it. Virtualization decouples the software from the hardware to enable those data centers to be operated almost as a utility. This approach promises to revolutionize the fundamental economics across the IT industry. The capital expense currently spent on under-utilized equipment can be Foreword xiii shifted to pay-as-you-go operating expenses, both within large enterprises and between service providers and their customers.

This new layer of the systems architecture brings new opportunities and new problems to solve: security, observability, performance, networking, utilization, power management, migration, scheduling, manageability, and so on.

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While both industry and the academic research community are busily responding to many of those challenges, there is still much to be done. The fundamentals remain important, and will continue to differentiate the various virtualization solutions in the marketplace. This book is a deep exploration of virtualization products and technologies provided by or for Solaris, written by experienced practitioners in the art of delivering real solutions to data center problems.

The book provides a holistic view of virtualization, encompassing all of the different models used in the industry. That itself is rare: No other organization has as complete a view of the entire range of system virtualization possibilities. A comprehensive background chapter leads neophytes into virtualization. Experienced data center architects will appreciate the individual chapters explaining the technologies and how you can use them to solve real problems—a critical resource in a rapidly changing world.

Although numerous corporations use some form of computer virtualization, today that usage may be limited to only a small portion of their computers. It presents the multiple technologies that the Oracle Solaris operating system uses to virtualize and consolidate computing resources, from hardware partitioning to virtual machines and hypervisors to operating system virtualization. The intent of Oracle Solaris 10 System Virtualization Essentials is to discuss computer virtualization in general and to focus on those system virtualization technologies provided by, or that provide support to, the Oracle Solaris or OpenSolaris operating systems.

For the system administrator, this new knowledge area requires skills with new technologies like hypervisors, which create virtual machines on a single hardware machine, and containers also known as zones , which create virtual operating systems running on a single operating system. Chapter 1 discusses system virtualization in general terms. Along the way, Chapter 1 also describes many of the concepts, features, and methods shared by many implementations of system virtualization. The concepts introduced in Chapter 1 are included in all of the other chapters.

Chapter 7 discusses the factors that should be considered when choosing a virtualization technology or combination of technologies. That chapter also details a process of analysis that can be used to choose a virtualization technology or combination of technologies.

Chapter 8 walks you through several examples of those technologies, and Chapter 9 completes the Preface xvii picture by describing virtualization management software. Finally, the Appendix offers a narrated tour of the history of virtualization. Because this book focuses on system virtualization technologies, technologies and methods that do not virtualize a computer system are not discussed.

These include storage virtualization and application virtualization. It does so in a straightforward way that makes an enterprise-level operating system accessible to system administrators at all levels. Solaris 10 Security Essentials Solaris 10 Security Essentials covers all of the security features and technologies in Oracle Solaris 10 that make it the OS of choice for IT environments that require optimal security. Solaris 10 Security Essentials explains the strengths of Solaris security, including its scalability and adaptability, in a simple, straightforward way.

Solaris 10 Basic Commands: Part 1

It also illustrates a lab setup in a virtual machine that can be created on a laptop for a complete experimental environment. They are written to be particularly accessible to system administrators who are new to Solaris—people who are perhaps already serving as administrators of Linux, Windows, or other UNIX systems. In fact, most of the examples used in the books are suited to or can be adapted to small learning environments such as a home system.

Thus, even before you venture into corporate system administration or deploy Oracle Solaris 10 in your existing IT installation, these books will help you experiment in a small test environment. A primary group is generalists who desire knowledge of the entire system virtualization space.

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Another group is data center staff who need an understanding of virtualization and use of such technologies in real-world situations. The extensive coverage of resource controls can lead to better stability and more consistent performance of workloads in virtualized systems. Computer science students with UNIX or Linux experience will gain a holistic understanding of the history and current state of the system virtualization industry.

The breadth of virtualization models discussed provides a framework for further discovery, and the real-world examples prepare students for data center careers. Technical support staff who troubleshoot virtualized systems will gain an introduction to system virtualization and interactions between virtualized systems. This background can shorten the time to diagnose problems, and enable personnel to readily distinguish between problems related to virtualization and ones that are independent of virtualization.

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If you would like to understand all of the virtualization technologies that use Oracle Solaris as a core component and determine how to choose among them, read all of the chapters in this book. Although this book mostly uses the new product names, occasional reference is made to previous names. The following table provides a guide to the old and new product names.

Although the books in this series focus on Oracle Solaris 10, they often incorporate aspects of OpenSolaris. Since that time, the evolution of this OS has accelerated even beyond its normally rapid pace. The authors of this series have often found it interesting to introduce features or nuances that are new in OpenSolaris. So whether you are learning Oracle Solaris 10 or already have your eye on OpenSolaris, the books in this series are for you.

This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments A book of this scope could not have been written without the combined expertise of numerous people.

Oracle Solaris 11 system virtualization essentials Jeff Victor

The authors were supported by the following people during the writing of this book. Project managers and coordinators Jim Siwila and Susan Miller kept us on course for many months and taught us more than a few things about publishing. The authors are grateful for their support. Hallway and dinner conversations and a few too many late-night e-mail exchanges with Scott and with Linda Kateley, Isaac Rozenfeld, and Steffen Weiberle were invaluable shared learning experiences. The authors are indebted to them for their countless suggestions and corrections.

Our editor, Janice Gelb, and our graphic designer, Jeff Ramsey, were also brought in late in the project and we appreciate their improvements to the quality of the book. Jeff Victor would like to thank his wife Cara and their daughter Kathryn for their patience and support during this endeavor. Jeff also extends additional appreciation to Scott Dickson for jumping in at the last minute, learning the intricacies of Oracle VM installation in record time, and immediately providing a thorough section on its use. Jeff Savit thanks his wife Vicky for her support during this effort.

He also thanks the reviewers for their corrections and comments. Simon Hayler would like to thank his wife Hayley for her patience while he was working on this book.

Bob Netherton would like to thank his wife Pamela and their daughter Rebecca for all of their patience and support while he was working on this book. About the Authors This book is made possible by the hard work and expertise of the following contributing authors. He is an OpenSolaris Zones Community Leader, the creator of the zonestat open-source program, and a regular author, contributor, and speaker at corporate and industry events.

Jeff received a bachelor of science degree in computer science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. In his spare time, he builds and launches high-power rockets. Jeff lives in New York with his wife and daughter. Jeff Savit has more than 25 years of experience in operating systems, virtualization, and performance on multiple platforms, and is a principal sales consultant at Oracle Corporation specializing in these areas.

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Before joining Sun, Jeff was a vice president at Merrill Lynch, where he had roles in development, systems management, market data, and web applications. Gary also covers virtualization technologies that are implemented on these platforms: Dynamic Domains, Logical Domains, and Oracle Solaris Containers. Prior to joining Oracle, Gary was with Sun Microsystems. He has more than 15 years of direct sales support experience as a systems engineer. Simon Hayler is a principal sales consultant for Oracle Corporation. His role at Sun over the past 12 years has included pre- and post-sales consulting, architectural design and implementation for both high-end commercial and high-performance computing, and, more recently, specialization in virtualization solutions.

Bob Netherton is a principal sales consultant at Oracle Corporation specializing in Oracle Solaris, virtualization, open-source software, and Linux interoperability. In addition, he has developed several best practices guides for Solaris as well as an advanced Solaris training curriculum.


  1. Oracle Solaris 10 System Virtualization Essentials Oracle Solaris System Administration.
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Bob received a bachelor of science degree in applied mathematics from the University of Missouri, and he is a regular blogger on Solaris, virtualization, and open-source technologies. This chapter provides an introduction to the basic virtualization concepts and issues. It then turns to system virtualization models. Virtualization technologies were invented to address gaps in the functionality of existing computer systems. Workload isolation is the primary goal of system virtualization. Three virtualization models are commonly used.